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Hip and Groin Injuries

The most common causes of hip pain in the general population include arthritisbursitismuscle strain, and nerve irritation. Athletes, however, often have hip pain caused by direct impacts and overuse syndromes. It's important for an athlete to pay attention to hip pain when it begins in order to prevent a chronic condition from developing. Here are some of the more common causes of hip pain in athletes.

Muscle strains in hip and groin

Pain in the groin is often the result of a groin (adductor muscle) pull or strain. This is similar to any other type of pulled or strained muscle, but it occurs when the the adductors (muscles in the inner thigh) are stretched beyond their limits. This can result in small muscle tears that cause pain and swelling. The groin muscles include the adductor magnus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, pectineus, and gracilis.

Osteoarthritis of the Hip

Osteoarthritis is one of the most common causes of chronic hip pain for both athletes and non-athletes alike. Osteoarthritis is an type of arthritis causes by wear-and-tear or degeneration of the hip joint. Over time, the smooth, protective cartilage of the hip socket wears down and bare bone is exposed, making movement painful. There are many treatments available, including appropriate strengthening exercises, but when conservative treatments fail, hip replacement surgery may be an option.  

Hip Pointer Injury

A hip pointer injury is a painful, acute injury caused by a direct impact to the iliac crest of the pelvis. The injury may cause bleeding into the abdominal or hip abductor muscles, which attach to the iliac crest. The bone and overlying muscle are often bruised, and the pain can be intense. Proper protective equipment can help prevent hip pointers, and immediate first aid and rest can speed recovery.

Hamstring Pull

Hamstring injuries are common among athletes who play sports that require powerful accelerations, decelerations or lots of running. A hamstring pull can be mild or severe and typically causes sudden, sharp pain in the back of the thigh. Treatment of a pulled hamstring will depend on the severity of the injury, but quick first aid (rest, ice, compression and elevation) can speed recovery.

Iliopsoas Syndrome

Pain in the groin and upper thigh, hip stiffness and a clicking or snapping feeling in the hip are common signs of iliopsoas injuries. This type of hip pain may be related to iliopsoas bursitis (irritation and inflammation of the iliopsoas bursa) or iliopsoas tendinitis (irritation and inflammation of the iliopsoas tendon). The condition occurs more often in gymnasts, dancers and track and field athletes who perform repeated hip flexion movements.

Bursitis of the Hip

Hip bursitis (trochanteric bursitis) is commonly seen in runners due to overuse, but can also be caused by a fall or impact which results in inflammation of the hip bursa (a fluid filled sac located around joints of the body that reduce friction between tendons, muscles and bones). If the bursa in the hip is irritated or inflamed, the athlete will have pain during almost all movement in the hip.

Piriformis Syndrome

Piriformis syndrome can cause gluteal (buttock) pain and sciatica in some athletes. The small piriformis muscle runs posteriorly from the sacrum to the outer hip. If this muscle becomes tight, shortened or if it cramps, it can put pressure on the sciatic nerve which passes underneath. The pain often radiates down the back of the thigh or up to the lower back.

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